The ECER100 standard is applicable for EV’s, vehicle category M+N and capable of a topspeed above 25 km/hr. So it is likely that this standard is applicable for your conversion.
For an official version of this standard click here
If you look at the content of this standard technically, it could be applicable for any electrical high voltage installation, and not just for an EV. This automatically means that your local institute for road safety has no monopoly for this approval, and that other official homologation institutes could do this part of the approval process. And after that, your national institute for roadsafety can perform the last checks and after their approval your conversion is ready to be e-licensed.
Check points: Documentation
In general, the ECE R100 is only about safety of the high voltage parts in your EV, defined as power train:
- The traction battery
- electronic converters (on board charger, controller, DC/DC converter, fuses etc)
- charging circuit
- auxiliairy functions like heater, power steering etc.
High voltage = > 60V DC or 25V AC.
You will have to provide the inspector with your EV + yourself 😉 and a lot of documents, explaining:
- the technical specification of every relevant part of the power train
- a scheme with the location in the EV of all of these parts
- essential vehicle characteristic as demanded in Annex 6 of the ECE R100
If the traction batteries can produce dangerous gasses, they should be ventilated safely.
Demands against electrical shock:
In Annex 3 of the ECE R100 the test instruments “testpin” and testfinger” are defined. It means:
- It should not be possible that live high voltage parts in passenger- and luggagecompartments can be touched with the testpin. Isolation class of high voltage parts should at least be IPXXD (like power cables)
- It should not be possible that live high voltage parts in the motorcompartment can be touched with a testfinger. Isolation class of high voltage parts in the motorcompartment should at least be IPXXB
- All covers and protections of live high voltage parts should be marked with the official symbol of “warning high voltage.” Like housings of devices, batterypacks, etc. See Annex 5 for this symbol definition.
- acces to live high voltage parts should only be possible by using a tool, and on purpose.
Traction battery and powertrain shall be protected by properly rated fuses or circuitbrakers.
All 12V parts have to be properly grounded to the chassis of the car. The potential equalisation resistance between any two exposed conductive parts shall be lower than 0,1 Ohm. This test shall be performed by a current of at least 0,2A.
The high voltage power train has to be isolated from the rest of the EV. This can be done by a using a measuring DC voltage, equal to the nominal voltage of the traction battery, insulation resistances between any exposed conductive part, and each polarity of the battery shall have a minimum value of 500 Ohm/Volt. Annex 4 shows an example of this test.
Safety while charging
The EV should not be able to move during charging. All parts which are used while charging, should be protected from direct contact, at any circumstance. (this also means that if the EV is still “ON” plugging in the charging cable must shut the system OFF, making it impossible to drive.
Safety while driving
- Starting the EV should be enabled by a key (maybe in combination with a switch)
- Removing the key, means not being able to drive.
- It should be clearly visible if the EV is ready to drive (just by pushing the throttle)
- And it should be visible if one more action is needed.
- If the traction battery get’s empty, the driver should get an early warning signal to leave the road safely.
- When leaving the EV, the driver should be warned by an active signal visible, or audible, if the EV is still in driving mode.
- Changing the direction of the EV into “rear” should only be possible by the combinations of two actuations or an electric switch which only operates when the speed is less then 5km/hr.
- Whether the the driving direction is in “rear” or “forward” should be clear for the driver
- If there is an event, like overheating, the driver should be warned by an active signal